Photo of a burning incense

Photo of a burning incense

Introduction To Hinduism

The word Hinduism is extracted from the Persian language; representing native of the land beyond the Indus River, the present day in Pakistan. The term Indians depicts this concept; Sanatana Dharma means eternal faith or path. Hinduism is not being considered as a single religion but a blend of many traditions. Contrary to Buddhism, Sikhism, or Jainism, Hinduism has no specific historical founder. So, it is hard to discover its history and origin. As per many decorated scholars, Hinduism is the oldest religion of the history of humankind.

Fundamentals Of Hinduism

Hinduism’s primary and fundamental teaching is that human being’s essence is not limited to the mind and body. Apart from body and mind, it is beyond the spirit of God inside the soul. Hinduism is the religion of ancient people renowned as Aryans, meaning sacred people, whose traditional philosophies and customs are documented in holy texts, called the Vedas. The conviction of Atman is shared among all schools of thought of Hinduism. This concept is the one notable difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. Today, with 1000 million followers, Hinduism is considered a third-largest religion in the world after Islam and Christianity. In comparison, 95% of them are residing in India.

Believes of Hinduism

Following are fundamental believes of Hinduism religion:

Hindus firmly believe in the teachings of Samsara and Karma. Samsara is the continual cycle of life and death, while Karma is the law of cause-and-effect.
Most sects of Hinduism are the believer of henotheistic; means worship of a single god while not denying the co-existence of other deities, known as Brahmans. There is a common belief that there are multiple pathways to reach God.

One of the fundamental principles of Hinduism is that the actions and intentions of humans determine the current life and future destinies.
Hindus strive and attempt to achieve the state of Dharma; code of conduct or code of living focuses on morality and good behavior of human beings.
Hindus adore all living creatures and appraise the cow, a holy and sacred animal.

One of the fundamental notions of Hinduism is Atman, meaning belief in the soul and eternal self. This ideology preaches that living creatures have a spirit and soul, and they are connected to the supreme soul. Hindus strive to achieve Moksha, meaning a state of salvation, end of reincarnation to become an eternal part of the absolute soul. Food is an integral part of Hindus’ daily life. Most of the followers do not eat beef, and many of them are vegetarian.

Notions of Hinduism

Yoga: Inner Enlightenment
Hindus believe in the concept of Yoga; it means to unite or join, Yoga leads to self-realization. It is an integral component of Hindu rituals. Hindus believe that the practice of Yoga causes mental stability, meditation, devotion, and liberation. This concept is highlighted in Hindus’ holy book, Bhagavadgita. Hindus strive to practice Yoga to reach the state of co-existence of inner-self and supreme-self. Hindus practice it to purify the mind and soul; to attain control over emotions, to acquire goodwill as well as physical wellbeing,

Hindus believe that time is cyclical and periodic, like four seasons. Time ages are referred to as golden, silver, copper, and iron. Golden-age shows the pious period; and with every successive generation or period, goodwill is replaced by dark age (Kali Yuga) showing cruelty and materialistic approach.

Types of Yoga based on human temperaments

Karma Yoga
The instructions about actions; humans of active temperament strive to selflessness, way of perfection.

Bhakti Yoga 
Yoga is the spiritual pathway of devotion to God. Loving devotees or Bhaktas show their unconditional love to God by rituals in temples.

Jnana Yoga
This Yoga is the realization of Atman (inner-self) and Brahman (ultimate-self). It is a mental practice to attain knowledge and wisdom. It is done to oversee nature’s divine realities by mentally set aside mental coverings and physicals obstructions.

Raja Yoga
This Yoga is the practice of meditation and mental control to make the mind quiet & calm. It is the search for inner enlightenment and inner-self.

Maya Illusion
Many schools of thought in Hinduism believe that the whole world is an illusion; Maya, a play or act of God’s premier consciousness. They consider life fraud and trickery. Unreal co-existence of life and world as per Hinduism is known as Maya. They believe that the existence of matter is misleading the human soul, so the soul is being trapped; this concept is Maya. It suggests accepting the temporary stay of the co-existence of life and matter. By goodwill and pure intentions, they believe that their soul can be set free and escape the world’s complexity.

Hindus believe that where there is duplexity or duality, separation, there is Maya the illusion. The energetic body and sound mind are being remained under the domination and effect of Maya. Maya can only be disappeared and overcome by the stability of mind and sense; when we feel things without the severance od seen. Hindus believe that by visiting the naked truth in its original form, they can overcome Maya’s influence.

Agni; the fire
In Hinduism, Agni is the God of fire. Hindus believe that God is equal to the sun and lightning. Many schools of thought in Hinduism believe that Agni is the protector of humanity, secure and safeguards them from the devil. Fire is an integral part of the domestic rituals of Hindus. Brahmin monks read Vedas and handle the fire; lead that ritual. Fire is used while offering and worshiping God, and throughout their whole life; marriage and the funeral. Hindus fired the dead body at funerals.

In ancient Hinduism, there were no temples and Mortis of God; instead, the fire was considered a messenger of God. But now, fire or Agni is a fundamental part of their life. From naming the child to the marriage of the couple, fire is essential to be there.

Karma and Dharma
Karma is said to be a consequence of human actions. Hindus believe that every human suffering is the result of previous and past actions. Karma is about the cause-and-effect relationship. Everybody is solely responsible for the output of activities.

Dharma is considered a code of conduct of living, laws, and duties. Placement of a person in caste and sub-caste is one component of Dharma. Hindus believe that past life is responsible is for everyday experience, and current life actions will forecast future life.
Gods and Sects of Hindus.

In Hinduism,  following gods and goddesses are being worshiped;

Brahma:-

creator of world and livings
Vishnu; protector of the universe
Shiva; the one who will recreate the universe when destroyed

Devi:-

responsible for restoring Dharma

Krishna:-

God of life and compassion

Lakshmi:-

goddess of wealth

Sarasvati:-

goddess of learning Cultural festivals

Holi:-

the festival of colors
Diwali:-. celebrations of lights

Navaratri:-

a festival of harvesting

Raksha Bandhan:-

the festival of the relationship between brother and sister

Maha Shivaratri:-

celebrations of Shiva god

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